- A North American birch with shaggy reddish-brown or orange bark
- black birch: birch of swamps and river bottoms throughout the eastern United States having reddish-brown bark
- It is a deciduous tree growing to 25 m (80 ft), rarely to 30 m (100 ft), high with a trunk up to 50 cm (2 ft), rarely 150 cm (5 ft), diameter, often with multiple trunks.
- Used in discussing the significance of something that is the case
- A piece of information used as evidence or as part of a report or news article
- (fact) a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred; “first you must collect all the facts of the case”
- (fact) a statement or assertion of verified information about something that is the case or has happened; “he supported his argument with an impressive array of facts”
- (fact) an event known to have happened or something known to have existed; “your fears have no basis in fact”; “how much of the story is fact and how much fiction is hard to tell”
- A thing that is indisputably the case
- a tall perennial woody plant having a main trunk and branches forming a distinct elevated crown; includes both gymnosperms and angiosperms
- A woody perennial plant, typically having a single stem or trunk growing to a considerable height and bearing lateral branches at some distance from the ground
- corner: force a person or an animal into a position from which he cannot escape
- a figure that branches from a single root; “genealogical tree”
- A wooden structure or part of a structure
- (in general use) Any bush, shrub, or herbaceous plant with a tall erect stem, e.g., a banana plant
river birch tree facts – The Ghost
Staying at a dark secluded cabin along the Birch River that his uncle owned seemed like the perfect fly fishing weekend getaway for Paul. Strange occurrences began happening. Would it be enough to prevent the unknown history of the cabin from being repeated? (A short story with about 5500 words). Fifth edition – November 2011.
Dark-eyed Junco [Junco hyemalis]
A widespread and common small sparrow, the Dark-eyed Junco is most familiar as a winter visitor to bird feeders. It comes in several distinctly different looking forms, but all are readily identified as "juncos" by their plain patterning, dark hood, and white outer tail feathers.
* Juncos are the "snowbirds" of the middle latitudes. In the eastern United States, they appear in all but the most northern states only in the winter, and then retreat each spring. Some juncos in the Appalachian Mountains remain there all year round, breeding at the higher elevations. These residents have shorter wings than the migrants that join them each winter. Longer wings help the migrants fly long distances.
* The Dark-eyed Junco includes five forms that were once considered separate species. The "slate-colored junco" is the grayest, found from Alaska to Texas and eastward. The "Oregon junco" is boldly marked blackish and brown, with a distinct dark hood, and is found in the western half of the continent. The "gray-headed junco" has a brown back and gray sides and lives in the central Rocky Mountains. The "white-winged junco" is all gray with white wingbars, and breeds only near the Black Hills of South Dakota. The "Guadalupe junco" of Baja California is dull and brownish. Two other forms may be distinguishable: the "pink-sided junco," a pale version of the Oregon junco, living in the northern Rocky Mountains, and the "red-backed junco," a gray-headed junco with a dark upper bill, found in mountains near the Mexican border.
* The Dark-eyed Junco is a common bird at winter bird feeders across North America. Data from Project FeederWatch show that it is often the most common feeder bird in an area, and it is on the top-ten lists of all regions except the Southeast and South-Central (where it is 11th and 12th, respectively). To view the top-25 lists of feeder birds from across the continent, go to the Project FeederWatch Data Retrieval page.
* Size: 14-16 cm (6-6 in)
* Wingspan: 18-25 cm (7-10 in)
* Weight: 18-30 g (0.64-1.06 ounces)
* Medium-sized sparrow.
* Unstreaked gray or brown, no wingbars (usually).
* Gray to black hood.
* Belly white.
* White outer tail feathers.
* Eyes dark. Legs pink.
* "Slate-colored junco" uniformly colored, with pale brown to dark gray back, hood, and sides.
* "Oregon junco" with well defined dark to dull gray hood, brown back and flanks.
* "Pink-sided junco" with pearly gray hood, lighter throat, small black mask (eyes and lores), dull brown back, pinkish cinnamon sides and flanks.
* "Gray-headed junco" with light gray hood and sides, a well defined reddish back, and a small black face mask.
* "Red-backed junco" like gray-headed, but bill with dark upper mandible.
* "White-winged junco" pale gray back, hood, and sides, with two weak white wingbars, and much white in the tail.
Sexes similar, but females average paler and browner.
Juvenile similar to adult, but with fine streaking on chest, head, and back.
* No other sparrow is so plainly marked with white outer tail feathers.
* Yellow-eyed Junco has yellow, not dark eyes, reddish in the wings, and walks, not hops on ground.
Song is a musical trill. Calls a hard "tick," "smack," and a short twittering trill.
© 2003 Cornell Lab of Ornithology
About the map
Breeds from western Alaska eastward to Newfoundland, southward in mountains to southern California and northern Georgia.
Winters from southern Canada to northern Mexico and northern Florida.
Breeds in coniferous and mixed forest. Winters in fields, suburbs, cemeteries, chaparral, parks, gardens, grassy dunes, and fencerows.
Seeds and insects.
Feeds primarily on ground. Scratches in litter with both feet. Forages in flocks.
Nest an open cup with foundation of rootlets, dried leaves, moss, and bark strips. Lined with fine grass stems, hair, or moss setae. Usually placed in small cavity on sloping bank or rock face, among roots of toppled tree, or along sloping road cut.
Bluish white, covered in brownish speckles.
Incubation period 12-13 days.
Condition at Hatching
Helpless with tufts of dark gray down.
Chicks fledge in 9-12 days.
Junco ardoise (French)
Junco ojo oscuro (Spanish)
Sources used to construct this page:
Nolan, V., Jr., E. D. Ketterson, D. A. Cristol, C. M. Rogers, E. D. Clotfelter, R. C. Titus, S. J. Schoech, and E. Snajdr. 2002. Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis). In The Birds of North America, No. 716 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North Amer
Canadian Beaver – 3
North American Beaver
"This beaver is the largest rodent in North America and the third largest rodent in the world, after the South American capybara and the Eurasian beaver. Adults usually weigh 15 to 35 kg (33–77 lbs), with 20 kg (44 lbs) a typical mass, and measure around 1 m (3.3 ft) in total body length. Very old individuals can weigh as much as 45 kg (100 lbs).
Like the capybara, the beaver is semi-aquatic. The beaver has many traits suited to this lifestyle. It has a large flat paddle-shaped tail and large, webbed hind feet reminiscent of a human diver’s swimfins. The unwebbed front paws are smaller, with claws. The eyes are covered by a nictitating membrane which allows the beaver to see underwater. The nostrils and ears are sealed while submerged. A thick layer of fat under its skin insulates the beaver from its cold water environment.
The beaver’s fur consists of long, coarse outer hairs and short, fine inner hairs. The fur has a range of colors but usually is dark brown. Scent glands near the genitals secrete an oily substance known as castoreum, which the beaver uses to waterproof its fur.
Beavers are mainly active at night. They are excellent swimmers but are more vulnerable on land and tend to remain in the water as much as possible. They are able to remain submerged for up to 15 minutes. The flat, scaly tail is used to signal danger and also serves as a source of fat storage.
They construct their homes, or "lodges," out of sticks, twigs, and mud in lakes, streams, and tidal river deltas. These lodges may be surrounded by water, or touching land, including burrows dug into river banks. They are well known for building dams across streams and constructing their lodge in the artificial pond which forms. When building in a pond, the beavers first make a pile of sticks and then eat out one or more underwater entrances and two platforms above the water surface inside the pile. The first is used for drying off. Towards winter, the lodge is often plastered with mud which when it freezes has the consistency of concrete. A small air hole is left in the top of the lodge. In the event of danger, a beaver slaps its tail on the water to warn other family members.
The dam is constructed using sections of deciduous trees, especially birch, aspen, willow and poplar. The inner bark, twigs, shoots and leaves of such trees are also an important part of the beaver’s diet. The trees are cut down using their strong incisor teeth. Their front paws are used for digging and carrying and placing materials. Some researchers have shown that the sound of running water dictates when and where a beaver builds its dam. Besides providing a safe home for the beaver, beaver ponds also provide habitat for waterfowl, fish, and other aquatic animals. Their dams help reduce soil erosion and can help reduce flooding.
Beavers are most famous, and infamous, for their dam-building. They maintain their pond-habitat by reacting quickly to the sound of running water, and damming it up with tree branches and mud. Early ecologists believed that this dam-building was an amazing feat of architectural planning, indicative of the beaver’s high intellect. This theory was disproved when a recording of running water was played in a field near a beaver pond. Despite the fact that it was on dry land, the beaver covered the tape player with branches and mud. The largest beaver dam is 2,790 ft (850 m) in length — more than half a mile long – and was discovered via satellite imagery in 2007. It is located located on the southern edge of Wood Buffalo National Park in northern Alberta and is twice the width of the Hoover dam which spans 1,244 ft (379 m).
C. c. canadensis, feeding in Winter
Normally, the purpose of the dam is to provide water around their lodges that is deep enough that it does not freeze solid in winter. The dams also flood areas of surrounding forest, giving the beaver safe access to an important food supply, which is the leaves, buds, and inner bark of growing trees. They prefer aspen and poplar, but will also take birch, maple, willow and alder. They will also eat cattails, water lilies and other aquatic vegetation, especially in the early spring (and contrary to widespread belief, they do not eat fish). In areas where their pond freezes over, beavers collect food in late fall in the form of tree branches, storing them underwater (usually by sticking the sharp chewed base of the branches into the mud on the pond bottom), where they can be accessed through the winter. Often the pile of food branches projects above the pond and collects snow. This insulates the water below it and keeps the pond open at that location.
Beavers usually mate for life. The young beaver "kits" typically remain with their parents
river birch tree facts
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